Maria Center
Key Topics Covered: 
  • Antitrust Laws:
    • Price fixing: An illegal practice where competitors agree on prices.
    • Group boycotting: Coordinated effort to exclude a party from business.
    • Tie-in arrangements: Forcing customers to buy another product as a condition of purchasing the desired product.
    • Market allocation: Agreements between competitors to divide markets to avoid competition.
  • Real Estate Principles:
    • Commingling: Illegal mixing of personal and client funds.
    • Safety Clause/Broker Protection Clause: Entitles brokers to commission if a sale occurs within a specified period after listing expiration, to a buyer they introduced.
    • Doctrine of Estoppel: Prevents parties from reneging on their word based on others' reliance.
    • Acceleration Clause: Allows lenders to demand full repayment of a loan if the borrower defaults.
    • Joint Tenancy vs. Tenancy in Common: Differences in ownership rights and inheritance.
  • Real Estate Transactions:
    • Alienation Clause/Due on Sale Clause: Requires full loan repayment if the property is transferred.
    • Easements and Liens: Rights to use another's land for a specific purpose vs. claims on property due to debt.
    • Trade Fixtures vs. Fixtures: Business-related installations in rented space vs. items permanently attached to the property.
    • Deeds and Titles: Physical documents transferring property vs. the concept of ownership.
  • Zoning and Planning:
    • Variance: Permission to deviate from zoning regulations.
    • Adverse Possession: Gaining ownership by open, notorious, and continuous possession under certain conditions.
    • Downzoning: Changing land use from commercial to residential.
    • Escheat: State's acquisition of property when an owner dies without heirs or a will.
  • Valuation and Appraisal:
    • Appurtenances: Rights or privileges associated with the property that "run with the land."
    • Master Plan: A comprehensive plan for orderly city growth.
    • Zoning and Building Permits: Governmental regulation of land use and construction.
    • Market Data/Sales Comparison Approach: Valuation method based on comparable sales.
  • About the Author Maria Center

    I began my career in real estate in Ohio in 2003 and currently work as a PrepAgent real estate exam tutor/instructor. 
    I am licensed in Ohio, Florida, Alabama, Virginia, and Kentucky. I work as a Real Estate Broker at 1st Class Real Estate Expert Realtors in Philpot, Kentucky; Managing Broker at Renwick Realty in Middletown, Ohio; Associate Broker at 1st Class Real Estate Premier Homes in Ashland, Virginia; and as a broker in both Florida and Alabama. I am a licensed real estate instructor in Florida and teach finance and appraisal in Ohio. I look forward to helping you prep for success!


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